Muslim freedom martyrs of India

By Shafee Ahmed Ko,,

The Muslim names like “Ahmadulla” may be strange but are so sublime and solemn are resting in peace now but they neither knew any discrimination between Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs or Christians nor relaxed their incorrigible battle against to liberate India from the British Imperialism. Several young Muslim boys of tender age, graduates or any ordinary unskilled worker, they were all precursors in the fight to win the freedom for India.

It is very obvious that the Muslims too had a lion’s share in fighting to free our nation along with Hindus with other faith holders, not yearning for a nation like Pakistan, but only to form an independent India.

But strangely enough, the mindset of present cohort particularly of few Hindu’s is regrettably different, for they think that it was only Hindus who achieved the Independence along with Mahatma Gandhi and negligibly a handful of Muslims like Ali Brothers, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Shaik Abdullah, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Zakir Hussain are the few who stood on freedom fight.

The book,” WHO IS WHO OF INDIAN MARTYRS” is so important one that it contains all the details of martyrs who laid their lives for the sake our India. There are several Muslims names, the age being tender from 8 and beyond who sacrificed lives in bullet shots, death sentences, and life sentence, sent to Andaman Island prison to die there unattended and uncared for. Following are few excerpts from the book:

“Ahmadullah: b.1808 Patna, Bihar; Son of Shri Elahi Bux; Prominent public man of Patna; served as Deputy Collector and as a member of Income Tax Board of Assessors for some time; Took active part in Wahabi Movement Arrested in 1857. Released after 3 months. Arrested again in November 1864. Removed from all public offices. Tried on charging plot on against the Government. Sentenced to death on February 27, 1865.The death sentence was later commuted to transportation for life and forfeiture of all property. Deported to the Andaman Islands in June 1865 and imprisoned. Died in the jail on November 21, 1881, alone and unattended. His younger brother, Yahya Ali, was also convicted of high treason at Ambala and deported Andaman Islands. Yahya Ali also died in Andamans.”

Another reference is worthy here how Muslim youths, school children along with brothers and sisters of different communities became victims all unarmed gathering at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on April 13,1919. The cruel act of the British Raj, under Brigadier -General Reginald Dyer who opened fire indiscriminately. The fire which lasted for 10 to 15 mts killed hundreds and wounding more 1500, including Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians.

A short and precise account of one more Ahmad Ullah who was born on 1884 at Amritsar Punjab, son of Shri Karim Baksh; Took part in Nationalist activities against British rules. Seriously wounded in firing by British troops on people attending a public meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar on April 13, and 1919. Died on May 25, 1919″

“Alauddin Sheikh, born on 1912 a village in Mohammad Distt. Midnapur, West Bengal; took part in the Quit India Movement (1942). Led a procession to the Nandigram Police Station on September 30,1942 received bullet wounds in firing by the police and died the same day”

The similar accounts are many a one. The reiteration here is that the common notion that prevails in the minds of the young and old that India belongs to only to Hindus is misconceived. The genuine love and patriotism to our country lies not in only saying” “vandematram”, but not showing hatred, taking faiths as agenda for political purpose and ill treat privileged people. Present day politicians barring few are divided in factions spewing poison on each other in communal intolerance.

Since younger generation is the future leaders of our Nation, focus on text books should not remain controversial after the government’s change.

The students especially in the rural areas are not well informed on healthy politics. Most students are vulnerable to petty politics and remain enigmatic since they are not able to reach the patriotic assignments in the text books.

Names like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Zakir Hussain, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Mira Bhen, Anne Besant, Allan Octavian Hume, William Digby, and Henry Cotton (who are friends of India) are less known to young students.

Title: Who's Who of Indian Martyrs

Author Name: Dr P.N. Chopra (Chief Editor)

Binding: Hard Cover

Publisher: Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Government of India 1972

Printed Pages: 357




I find it difficult to believe Ali brothers are included in this. The seed of partition was sown by them. The "hijra" that led many to Afghanistan - land of Dar-ul-islam - was led by them (just imagine if all Muslims migrated to Afganistan!). They endorsed the khilafet movement which did untenable damages including the infamous Mopla revolt in Malabar. and what was Khilafet for - to reinstate the Caliph in Turkey, to ensure Holy Places in arabia are protected,.. Why would Indian Muslims care about restoration of Caliphate??

Obviously patriots do not have a religion; their religion is their love for the motherland.

Khilafat Movement

This is a new one. The Ali brothers were as nationalist as Maulana Azad or Dr Zakir Hussain and were never for a seperate country for Muslims. The Khilafat Movement was an All India movement supported by Gandhiji and the Congress for defying the British. Of course it was a sensitive issue for Muslims but then during those times such issues were needed to defy the British and to get people to participate. Why else would Gandhiji want to break the salt law and march to Dandi to make salt?

I dont understand how the Mopla revolt was infamous. It was an uprising of Malabar Muslims against the British where many Muslims lives were sacrificed for the nation.

Again coming back to Ali bothers the hijra or migration to Afghanistan was to set up an parallel Indian government in exile and the King of Afghanistan was supportive of such a move and thats why that country was chosen. You forget Mr Thomas that Raja Mahendra Pratap was the President of this government.

The 1857 war of independence was spear headed by Muslims and after that the Muslims of India were targetted for persecution. The British made sure that after 1857 the Muslims of India were driven out of power and offices of prestige. Lets not forget that when the British took over our country it was Muslim ruled and hence Muslims were the people who were occupying most of the important positions. It was in the conscious actions of the British post 1857 that has origins of the deplorable position Muslims of India are today in. They understood that Muslims of India want freedon and self rule and cannot be trusted to be subversient to foreign occupation.

Muslims have given so much for the freedon of this country that if all of us would have migrated to Afghanistan then India today might still be under British rule and you Mr Gopi Thomas (or Gopal Singh, whatever your name is) would still be a slave of the British.


Mumtaz, I am not disputing that there were many Muslims who patriotically particiupated in the freedom movement. Of course there were; especially towards the later part of the movement.

I am disputing about Khilafet, Ali brothers role in that and afterwards, and the seeding of separatism that ended with the division of the country.

khilafet movement was started by Ali brothers to force British to 1)preserve the Caliphte 2)Protect the integrity of Ottoman empire and 3) Protect the Holy places of Mecca and Medina. It did not have anything to do with Indian independence movement when it started. A Khilafet manifesto was published by Ali brothers in 1920 conference calling British to protect the Caliphate and Indian Muslims to unite and hold the British accountable for this promise.

Gandhiji, being an astute politician, saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims into the national independence movement. until then Muslism were not a part (as a whole community) of the Freedom movement. Gandhiji saw that Muslims were united for the first time on a pan-India basis for khilafet; and he decided to endorse Khilafet so that Khilafet will be a part of the Freedom movement and British will have to face a united Hindu-Muslim front (until then Muslims were not active in the freedom movement). So, Khilafet for Muslism, and Swaraj for all Indians were the the underlying themes of Indian National Congress in 1920 onwards.

Gandhiji led several non-cooperation and styagraha movements for khilafet and Swaraj during this period.

However, like in any frenzied situation, rumors started. In Thiroorangadi, Malabar,in Aug 1921, an Ali Muslyar declared that a new Caliphate is established in Delhi and Britishers will be leaving. He declared himnslf as the representative of the Delhi caliphate. Soon, Muslims (moplas) started killing and raping, converting, looting temples, taking over properties. It went for weeks and months before it was settled by the British. In fact, the present MAaabar Special police (MSP) was started to control this riot. THIS IS ONE OF THE BLEAKEST CHAPTERS IN KERALA HISTORY.

Soon after the mopla riot, there was another violent incident in Chauru Chaura in North India. Gandhhiji severed his relation with the Khilafet movement after this incident. Ali brothers were arrested and were in jail for three years. Khilafet had a natural death when Kamal Pasha severed his relationship with th Muslim clergy in IStanbul and establishedthe modern Trurkey. Ali brothers joined Muslim League (which was against Khilafet movement because of their opposition to fighting for the cause of a foreign thing, Calipahte and ottoman empire). As soon as Ali brothers joined Muslim League, serious discussion on Pakistan Movement -Tehrik-e-PAakistan- started. The rest is history.

Bahadur Shah Zafar was the first leader of freedom fight n 1857

Mr. Anonymous / Mumtaz Ansari / ghazi hind / V. M. Khaleelur Rahman / Shafee Ahmed
With due respect to you All, I read all Indian’s concerns carefully. It is very interesting but not good for any one.... Sorry to say that you all did the same what is going outside of this portal.... every one want to declare only he is Mr. Right.... in writing Indian history you people put up good (somehow correct) information. But forgot or Miss the Root of freedom fight...
Mr. Gopi wrote : (Gandhiji, being an astute politician, saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims into the national independence movement. until then Muslism were not a part (as a whole community) of the Freedom movement. Gandhiji saw that Muslims were united for the first time on a pan-India basis for khilafet; and he decided to endorse Khilafet so that Khilafet will be a part of the Freedom movement and British will have to face a united Hindu-Muslim front (until then Muslims were not active in the freedom movement).
Reply to Mr.Gopi
the first war of independence in 1857 - a war fought under the leadership of Bahadur Shah Zafar, they were many Like Maharani laxmi bai, nana sahib, tatya tope, veer kunwar singh, bhagat singh, Chandra shekhar azad, as many Hindu leader took part in freedom fight Muslim are also took part on same greater level. None of religion left behind to free India from British (except a cast which call them selves an upper class (nothing to do by self, get done by slaves) the Brahmins).... we should not forgot the root of every cause because the answer is lying there only.... How India was ruled by Mughal ? Is there communal riots ? Is there ignorance to any cast/religion from there basic rights ? Is there any interference in religions school, preach, in following ?
Please go back to read the history and read how India is captured by British? Who supported them ? What they need from India ? Do they still exist in our country ?

Shell we keep those snakes (Brahmins) of sleeve ...?

We Muslims need not prove that we are patriot to India....

Hello friends...
I don't know why most Muslims want to prove their Innocence to other Indians. Let me make it very clear. Islam is the religion of Allah the Almighty. It is Allah who has created everyone of us. We muslims bow down only in front of Allah. And If someone says that we are not loyal to India just by not saying "vande mataram " ( I bow down to motherland) let them say that. We are not going to bow down to anyone other than the true God. No explanations will be provided.

Today Most of the Hindus say that God is one we just say him bhagwan. I want to ask them what type of faithfulness you show to your God ? Every other day you have a festival, a birthday, of some of your daeties. Is that one god of yours is not capable of giving a child or give rains or give u money ? Come on friend... whom are you cheating ?

I want to ask you why are you insulting God ? today I see that almost every animal is a God worshipped.

I request you to learn your own religious scriptures to know what's the concept of god in hinduism. your religious leaders are clearly misleading you. come on start reading urself. its clearly stated in gita that god is one. he has no image, no statue . Stop cheating God please.....We muslims are far better than anyone. Atleast we are not cheating our creator.....

A Crazy Punch...

Dear Mumtaz Ansari,

No one is questioning Muslims patriotism when they question the Khilafet movement. You reacted the same way 90% muslim brothers react on this portal with the final punch line -"Muslims have given so much for the freedon of this country that if all of us would have migrated to Afghanistan then India today might still be under British rule and you Mr Gopi Thomas (or Gopal Singh, whatever your name is) would still be a slave of the British"- Freedom was neither achieved by Hindus nor by Muslims it was achieved by only nationalist Indians. Khilafet Movement & Congress's coming together is perhaps the mother of all the marriages of conveniences between different Indian political parties we are witnessing in present day. Of course it surely has its merit (even though so short lived) as it brought Pan-Islamic Fundamentalist Muslims (fighting for something not certainly related to the vows or sufferings of Indians) and the nationalist party Congress together to challenge Britishers together. Khilafet started for a cause whose routes were not located in India and ended in parting away (as Muslim League of course) in the form of a sister nation Pakistan. But Muslims as all the patriot citizen of India have been there in Khilafat, Muslimleague, Congress and even in Azad Hindu Fauz so one need not to go on reconfirming it that Muslims too are patriots and give power packed punches like u did (had Muslims were not there India would still have been a slave of Britishers) which are just crazy and fantasized.

Khilafat Movement

The Caliphate was (and the Holy Places In Arabia are) as important to Muslims worldwide as the Vatican and the Pope to to you Mr Thomas. I beleive patriotism and religion are complimentary and not mutually exclusive.

Khilafat Movement in KERALA

Extracts from a report to BRITISH by HINDU landlord about KHILAFAT in Malabar region of KERALA

"many wells and tanks filled up with the mutilated, but often only half dead bodies of our nearest and dearest ones who refused to abandon the faith of our fathers; of pregnant women cut to pieces and left on the roadsides and in the jungles, with the unborn babies protruding from the mangled corpses; of our innocent and helpless children torn from our arms and done to death before our eyes and of our husbands and fathers tortured, flayed and burnt alive; of our helpless sisters forcibly carried away from the midst of kith and kin and subjected to every shame and outrage which the vile and brutal imagination of these inhuman hellhounds could conceive of;"""

THAT WAS KHILAFAT MOVEMENT FOR KERALA. Even The famous Malayalam poet KUMARANASAN, wrote a poem- DURAVASTHA, about the atrocities committed by MUSLIMS during KHILAFAT MOVEMENT in KERALA.

NO Nationalism In Islam

Nationalism is against Islam. A muslim's loyalty is only to his religion. Its true that there were scores of Muslims who fought against the british, but there fight was to liberate this land and restore the Muslim . And as far as Khilafat is concerned that is the legitimate way of governance and every Muslim should struggle to restore it.

Doesnt that create a

Doesnt that create a problem?

Would not one have to fight for the country (against an Islamic nation) if leaders decide on that?

In an earlier discussion on this subject, I was told there is no conflict -- ie if India declares war on Saudi Aarbia, Muslim (including religious Muslims) soldiers will not have an issue in fighting..

If no nationalism in ISLAM why expect anything from "nation"???

If there is no nationalism in ISLAM why must MUSLIMS expect anything from the "nation"??? Why complain that MUSLIMS are NOT being looked after in INDIA as they do not believe in "nation" and hence are not part of INDIA???



I congratulate Mr. Ko.

I congratulate Mr. Ko. Shafee Ahmed for writing and the for publishing this important review on a book titled "Muslim Freedom Martyrs of India" by Dr. P.N.Chopra.

The history books written by Indian as well as foreign authors make it clear that the zest for liberating India from the clutches of the British was bubbling in the minds of the Indian Muslims. It was also because of the fact that they had ruled India for more than 800 years.

The Wahabi Movement was also intensely in the freedom struggle of the country. The fact is that Indian Muslims did not lag behind any other community in patriotism. All Indians were on a single platform to liberate India from the slavery of the British. Many ulemas were hanged in Delhi and other places for their strong anti-British activities for the sake of the country.

Maulana Mohammed Ali, Maulana Showkath Ali, Dr. Ansari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and hundreds of others were with Mahatma Gandhiji and fought for freedom.

It is said that mother of the Ali brothers was also in the forefront. "Boli maa nay Mohammed Ali ki, Jaan beta khilafat mein they they" echoed everywhere from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. People belonging to all communities were under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhiji. The Khilafat movement was very powerful even though some were critical of it. Even Allama Mohammed Iqbal did not support it. Of course they had their own understandable reasons for it. They differed with one another on this issue but the thirst for freedom was intact.

There were freedom fighters even in our internationally famous town AMBUR. People like Fathekhan saheb, Vavoor Ghafoor sahib and others were popular freedom fighters. The late Shri Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) says in his book "Sirai-il tawam" that he and Fathekhan saheb of Ambur were together in the prison. He gives details of their life in prison in this book.

I would like to say here that we cannot forget the service, dedication and sacrifice of Ulema ( Islamic scholars )for the cause of freedom of our country. All these are historical facts which we can find in the books. There is need for us to tell the present generation how freedom was achieved and who were all involved in it.

The title of the book is

The title of the book is "Who's Who of Indian Martyrs" and not what I mentioned in my earlier message.

As regards nationalism, Maulana Mohamed Ali used to say that "when it is the question of my country, I am an Indian first, Indian second, Indian third and nothing but an Indian and when it is the question of my faith, I am a Muslim first, Muslim second, Muslim third and nothing but a Muslim.

Patriotism is a part and parcel of our religion. The well known Hadeeth - saying of Prophet Mohammed (sal-am) is that "Hubbul watani minal Iman" -

Let us remember the Mahatma and all other nationalists who sacrificed their lives for our motherland. They were really great. We must salute them and be indebted to them.

We are all Indians - the sons of this soil - and we are all one whatever may be our language, caste, creed or religion.

Hadith - hubbul watan min al iman

there is no such hadith as huubul watan minal iman. the hadith was fabricated by Lawrence of arabia . No books of hadith discuss it








your patriotism vs their patriotism

Rahman sb, I appreciate your thought but believe me, majority will consider as mere drama.

They consider themselves as born patriot inspite being invloved in selling country secrets to enemy country, making spurious drugs, mixing washing powder in infant milk, selling contaminated blood, stealing kidney from poor, stealing money from govt schemes for poor, printing fake currecy, fooling ordinary citizens, Involved in all kind of scam. making fake passports, driving licences and PAN cards even in the name of Kasab.

Their partitosim will never be in questioned.
Your will always in be doubt even if u take strong stand on terrorism, refuse to bury 26/11 culprit on Indian soil and live a life of good citizen.

In my apt, flag hoisting ceremany was held on 15th Aug. All the Muslims resident were present but only few hindus turned up. Muslim would have labeled easily as Pakistani if they had not turned up for others no body can question their patriotism.

Mentality need to change of some people like Mr. Anonymous/Singh

Dear Mr. Singh & Anonymous, I have felt the same feeling which comes from Typical Hindus. And would like reiterate that India is our nation no matter Hindu, Muslik, Sikh & Isai. But do not mix it with religion rather respect.

Mentality need to change of some people like Mr. Anonymous/Singh

Dear Mr. Singh & Anonymous(Some Friends), I have felt the same feeling out of your views given, which comes from Typical Hindus. Would like reiterate that India is our nation no matter Hindu, Muslik, Sikh & Isai. But do not mix it with religion rather give respect and do not ignore History. That is different matter it is bieing hidden.
Live happily and let the people live happily. Life is too short. Leave your basic chep instincts.

Khilafat, a clarification

The Khilafat struggle evokes controversy and strong opinions. It is regarded as a political agitation based on a pan-Islamic, fundamentalist platform and being largely indifferent to the cause of Indian independence. Critics of the Khilafat see its alliance with the Congress as a marriage of convenience. Proponents of the Khilafat see it as a major milestone in improving Hindu-Muslim relations, while advocates of Pakistan and Muslim separatism see it as a major step towards establishing the separate Muslim state. The Ali brothers are regarded as founding-fathers of Pakistan, while Azad, Dr. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Khan are widely celebrated as national heroes in India.(Wiki)

Who is patriotic Muslim

An aninomus reader lamented with a list of dishont deeds and with criminal colour.This is the reply to him. All Muslims are patriotic to India. There is no doubt. Even in entertainment like one day cricket matches between India and Pakistan, we take pride India’s winning the match. We remain faithful to our Nation as law abiding citizen. The various allegation what you have related in your blog is criminals. You should know the difference between patriotism and criminalism. Criminals are every where in the world. For them, there are police, court, fines and jails with the weight of crime. There is no religion in patriotism. The land belongs to every one and every one belongs to the land as far as one lives abiding the laws of the land.

Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar

Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar was a brilliant writer and orator in both English and Urdu and bringing out weekly Hamdard in Urdu and weekly Comrade in English. He was also regularly contributing his articles to different English and Urdu dailies and other periodicals.

He was a freedom fighter who was imprisoned by the British authorities for two years. He was also elected as President of Indian National Congress in 1923.

Maulana Mohammed Ali had received education from a Deoband madrasa, Aligarh Muslim University and Lincoln College, Oxford University. He was associated with the AMU in its expansion and was one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia.

He was undoubtedly an Indian nationalist leader par excellence whose contributions for our country's independence, educational movements and Hindu-Muslim unity were high and appreciable.

The Maulana attended the Round Table Conference in London and soon after the conference he passed away on 4th January 1931 and was buried in Jerusalem as per his wish as "he did not want to return to his slave country".

It has to be noted that the Maulana passed away when the Pakistan movement had not come into existence. It is wrong to assume that he supported the Pakistan theory.

Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar

Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar was a brilliant writer and orator in both English and Urdu and bringing out weekly Hamdard in Urdu and weekly Comrade in English. He was also regularly contributing his articles to different English and Urdu dailies and other periodicals.

He was a freedom fighter who was imprisoned by the British authorities for two years. He was also elected as President of Indian National Congress in 1923.

Maulana Mohammed Ali had received education from a Deoband madrasa, Aligarh Muslim University and Lincoln College, Oxford University. He was associated with the AMU in its expansion and was one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia.

He was undoubtedly an Indian nationalist leader par excellence whose contributions for our country's independence, educational movements and Hindu-Muslim unity were high and appreciable.

The Maulana attended the Round Table Conference in London and soon after the conference he passed away on 4th January 1931 and was buried in Jerusalem as per his wish as "he did not want to return to his slave country".

It has to be noted that the Maulana passed away when the Pakistan movement had not come into existence. It is wrong to assume that he supported the Pakistan theory.

Maulana Jauhar

Maulana Mohamed Ali was one of the leaders of the Khilafet movement whose objectives were 1) restore the caliphate in Turkey 2) Protect the Holy Lands 3) Ensure the integrity of the Ottoman empire ...It did not have anything to do with India or Indian Muslims, except, may be the protection of Holy Lands (it was not under any danger, anyway).

Mahathmaji persuaded Khilafet to join hands with INC so a combined Hindu-Muslim face could be given to the freedom movement. Howevr, after the Malbar and Chauri Chauri violence, GAndhiji severed relation with khilafet movement. Maulana was disillusioned by the failure of Khilafet and by Dandhiji's suspension of civil disobedience movement.

He left congress party in 1923. He opposed the Nehru report, produced by Motilal Nehru and a group of Hondu-Muslim congress leaders, because it did not provide separate electorates for Muslims. HE supported Jinnah's 12 points; he became GAndhiji's critic, and broke away from congress and joined Muslim League. HE also broke away from nationalist leaders such as Maulana Azad, Mukhtar Ansari, Hakim Ajmal etc.

Mr Rehman is right that the official "pakistan movement" had not started by then. However, many historians state that the official nail was stuck with the 12 point progarm Jinna produced.



THAN all hind bureaucrat,

THAN all hind bureaucrat, police and politicians are very faith full to india so india is free from scams & corruptions




Khaleel Bhai Sahib,please write what we want.Please do not thrust to reader what you know.

Dear All, India's freedom

Dear All,

India's freedom struggle had the support of all religious communities and Muslims lagged behind none in their sacrifices. Nobody can deny this.

There were also thousands of people belonging to all religions who sacrificed for the national cause without any publicity. They were not in the limelight as they were not leaders. Most of the ulema (Islamic scholars) were also of this category.

In short Indians fought the struggle. I am an Indian and only Indian if it is the question of my nationality. Maulana Azad is as dear to my as Pandit Jawaherlal Nehru for their involvement and sacrifices.

There are many books written about the history of the freedom struggle of our country. Let us read them, get inspiration and benefited.

True Patriotism

Some school students in Taiwan were vying over who was most patriotic."I never buy imported goods," said one.

"I never see foreign films," said another

"Well," said a third, "I haven't passed English since I started School."

----New Life Post,Taiwan



When India launched on its struggle for freedom from British rule, its two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims, joined in it with equal enthusiasm, like they had done so during the First Indian War of Independence in 1857.

The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885. Nationalist leaders from all communities participated in its activities in the first four decades of its existence. Indeed, its second President was a Muslim, Badruddin Tyabji. Soon after the first World War, Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the leader of the Indian freedom movement. It was he who set the Congress on a mass militant but non-violent course. Till then, the organization had been largely an elitist protest movement against the denial of rights and opportunities to qualified Indians to participate in the governance of the country in order to ensure that India's interests were not subverted to those of Britain. Under Gandhi's inspired leadership, the social base of the Congress was widened and it acquired the character of a mass national organization. Meanwhile, in pursuit of their worldwide imperial interests the British decided to dissolve the Islamic Caliphate in Turkey. The repression let loose in Muslim countries in the wake of this decision caused a stir in the Indian Muslim community which launched its own separate movement against the British, referred to as the Khilafat. Mahatma Gandhi, who perceived that the common impulse behind both movements was nationalism, called for a united effort. The Indian National Congress made common cause with the Khilafat, and leaders of the two organizations conducted a common struggle against British imperialism. Among the most steadfast freedom fighters were the Pathans of undivided India's North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), now a part of Pakistan. Led by their austere leader, Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan, who was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi, the Pathans were throughout uncompromising in their opposition to British rule. Since NWFP was a sensitive border area, the British had to employ even more repression here than elsewhere in the country. They resorted to strong-arm methods to suppress the Khudai Khidmatgars, the soldiers of the disciplined and non-violent militia raised by the Khan. Thousands of these volunteers were victims of this repression. They not only spent years in British prisons but fell victims to their batons and bullets.

Muslim Leaders During India's Freedom Struggle

Phase of Hindu-Muslim Unity

During their joint struggle against the British, the Hindus and Muslims transcended their sectarian differences and interests. In this period, even Muslim separatist leaders paid tribute to the ideal of Hindu-Muslim unity. Enthusiastic scenes of fraternity and amity between the two communities were witnessed allover the country. These events greatly encouraged and strengthened the Muslim nationalist leadership all over the country that is now manifest in all the major secular political parties of India. These developments were a direct challenge to the British hegemony over India.

Anxious to reassert their hold over the country they took recourse to the application of the classical imperial policy of divide-and-rule by playing up sectarian differences between the two communities. Unfortunately, this succeeded largely owing to personal rivalries and animosities between the leaders of the movement. The feudal elements among Muslims, as well as the conservative and rigidly orthodox among the Hindus, who enjoyed considerable prestige and influence in their respective communities gradually drifted away from the truly nationally inspired national movement. The hard core of nationalist Muslim Leaders, however, remained solidly united with their Hindu colleagues in the Congress. Outstanding among them were Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Abbas Tyabji, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Maulana Hussain, Ahmed Madani and Maulana Hifzur Rehman.

The Muslim separatists set up the All-India Muslim League and claimed that it was the only political party representing the Muslim minority in the country. But the League was an avowedly sectarian body. In course of time, it developed into an all-India organization which competed with the Congress for the vote of the Indian Muslims. As the League grew in strength, it evolved a novel theory that the Hindus and Muslims in India were two distinct nations. The next step was its demand for a separate homeland for Indian Muslims to be carved out of the territory of India. After World War II when the British, under the pressure of India's demands for freedom, agreed to withdraw from the country, the Muslim League insisted on partition. The Congress had always opposed the theory that Hindus and Muslims in India constituted two separate nations. It had set its face against the proposal to divide the country into a Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. However, committed as it was to democratic principles the British rulers were able to prevail upon it to accept the proposition that "unwilling parts of the country" could not be compelled to remain in the Indian Union. Also, because it wished to obtain independence for the subcontinent from British rule as early as possible, the Congress had ultimately to accept that the predominantly Muslim provinces of India's northwest and the east could secede to form the new state of Pakistan.

(Excerpted from "Indian Muslims", a Government of India Publication, 1972)


Thanks to each and everyone for informing me of the great Muslim wariors of mother India though u forgot to mention one great name but for whose mention this blog would be an incomplete one.. THE name is Ashfaqullah Khan.
By d way I am proud to be a compatriot of a great many Muslim Brothers..

Dear bro, u have many reasons to villify d brahmins and in spite of being a brahmin i must admit it...But there are plenty of examples which adduces to the fact that the brahmins died for their country unhesitatedly.............Please go throug any good history book and get it..

Excellent write up. In the

Excellent write up. In the freedom struggle of India, the Hindus and the Muslims fought together for their motherland. It was only the selfish and narrow minded thinking of leaders like Jinnah and the RSS that slowly but surely sowed the seeds of division between the two.

Freedom Struggle

29th Mar 2012
Why dont u take the name of Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabh Patel the fascist to break India.Jinnah was a secularist and he won the Pak not for himself for the shrewdness of Nehru and Sardar Vallab Patel.

need to know how the muslim ulema's are related to independence

how the people of muslims in india are related in freedom fight.
who given the name as mahatma to gandi in bombay conference ?
how many muslim ulemas are directedly involved in the independence of india ?

please tell these answers


Martyars of India

1.. ashfaqullah khan was one of the greatest son of India and first muslim to be hanged for his love to india...Khan Abdul gaffar khan was one of the followers of mahatma gandhi and was called Frontier gandhi...Moulana azad was one of the greatest son of mother india who actively took part in civil disobedience and quit india movement in india and later became education minister of india..Sahanwaz khan was the chief commender after netaji in INA..Habibur rahman was the only person whom netaji took with him when he was about to leave rengoon and Habiboor rahman was the only one who remained with netaji all the time...There are plenty of great sons of india whose name i didnt mention..

2.The name mahatma was given by Rabindranath Tagore...and the name father of nation was given by subhas chandra bose..

3..I dont know the meaning of ulemah so i cant answer ...sorry

Muslims in Independence struggle

The Martyrs, freedom fighters are Muslims or Hindus or whatever it may be have done their humane work at their individual capacity and conscience, questioning their sacrifice and attitude does not arise. The question arises because learned Muslims and its intelligentsia are not opposing the madarsa led 'PAN ISLAMIC' notion of an absurd country and its citizenship. Are we all 'understanding' people are deaf and dumb and blind - not to recognize the existence of psudo/half educated religio leadership who are anti-nationalism(against any nation) preacher and provoking and tunnellizing the young and half or no educated people to fight and kill innocents and die for an abstract cause of an 'Islamic nationalism'. It is not needed to advertise and tell every person that some independent thinking people who became muslim by imposition(BIRTH to a community) and not by choice, un-enslaved by mollahs and moulavies, fought the independence struggle. The sacrifice of those mulim persons cannot be forgotten but no credit for mollahs and moulavies of Islam on india's freedom struggle.

vice-versa the credit of

vice-versa the credit of freedom does not go to any hindu pujari or pandit, so why most of the serials on media are only based on freedom fighters who were hindu, why the youths are not being tried to inculcate through any medium about muslim freedom fighters. and even today why so many days of holiday on hindu festivals and only one day off for muslims on idd. IF U HAVE A CONCIENCE, THINK ABT IT AND LET ME KNOW....

meaning of ulemah

ulemah means Islamic scholar (alimh)

muslim freedom fighter

DrMaghfoor Ahmad Ajazi was a veteran freedomfighter of bihar

Muslim Freem Fighters

Retrieving the Forgotten History :

-Syed Naseer Ahamed

The Role of Muslims in India's struggle for independence is glorious
episode in the history of India. It represents the valor, sacrifice
and patriotism of Indians. The movement lasted for about a century.
In this historic struggle Muslims did play a definite role, shared
the responsibility of liberating India from the yokes of British
imperialism with Hindu brethren, underwent untold sufferings, made
great sacrifices and thus served the country commendably

The Forgotten history of the sacrifice of Muslims

The divide and rule policy adopted by the British to
consolidate and perpetuate their power in India, the circumstances
that led to the partition of British India and the gruesome communal
riots that erupted eventually broke the unity of Indian people, who
otherwise fought united against the British. The wars with Pakistan,
and communal disturbances did bring in mental barriers between Hindus
and Muslims. The communal fanatics from both sides and particularly
the Hinduthva forces readily used this perturbing situation
successfully to further widen the gulf.

History written with certain prejudices and improper
perspectives and particularly the ` nationalistic ` way of history
writing contributed towards the development of communal mindset.
Literature produced with a communal bias played a destructive role in
devastating a secular framework of thought. Popular perceptions are
also carved with a parochial view. All these blamed Muslims and
unfortunately the Muslims inevitably become a ` perceived enemy '.
This resulted in consciously marginalizing the sacrifices of Muslims.
It'll not be an overstatement to say that ` the politics of
remembrance and (deliberate) forgetfulness' played havoc with the
voluminous contribution that Muslims made. Hence we find only passing
references being made that too only about selected ` nationalist `
personalities like Moulana Azad.

As rightly said by Prof. Shan Muhammad of Alighar Muslim
University in his Muslims and India's Freedom Movement, ` the result
of all this has been the campaign of hatred and the press propaganda
against the Muslims. After the attainment of Independence it was
hoped that our intellectuals would say good-bye to the British
historiography of infusing communal politics and sowing the seeds of
dissension between the two communities in India and usher in the
golden age of freedom. But it was hope, contrary to the expectations;
the role of Indian Muslims in the national movement has not been
given adequate coverage in the press or books. It has either been
side tracked or referred to here and there by scholars. Instead of
factual and secular historiography it has been communalized. The
contribution of Muslim revolutionaries, poets and pose writers is not
known today'. The ultimate result is the creation of a wide gap, a
gap ever widening between Muslims and Hindus in India.

Nawab Sirajuddaula, First Native Ruler who realized
the menace latent in British expansion and tried to check it

Sirajiddaula, Nawab of Bengal was the first native ruler who relised
the menace latent in British expansion and tried to check it in its
inception. The additional fortification of Calcutta by the
British `Provoked the Nawab's wrath '. He marched to Calcutta and
captured Fort William on 20, 1756. Due to the great betrayal by his
unfaithful General Mir Jafar and a group of wealthy Businessmen and
rich financers group under the leader ship of Big Banker Jagth Sethi,
got defeat in the battle of Plassey. However Sirajuddaula stood in
the annuals of history as a first ruled who challenged the
expansionist trends of British and tried to avert the danger to
Mother Land. After the battle of plassey, Nawab Mir Qasim fought
against the British heroically and got defeat in 1764 at Buxar. The
successes in these battles lead the British to capture the states of
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Muslim fakirs unfurled the first flag of revolt.

Muslim Fakirs of Bengal unfurled the first flag of revolt,
roughly 100 years before the First War of India's Independence. The
British who were getting some hold over the affairs of native rulers
were conspiring to loot the wealth of the natives, and trying to get
control all over Bengal with the active help of native rulers. At
about 1763 for the first time Muslim fakirs revolted against the
English East India Company under the able leadership of Majnu Sha
Fakir. sanyasi leaders like Bhawani Pathak supported Fakir's revolt
against the company and its stooges. The first and foremost combined
revolt of Fakirs and Hindu Sanyasis against the British was called
Fakir-Sanyasi Revolt. After the death of Majnu sha Fakir leaders like
Musa Sha, Chirag Ali, Nurul Muhammad etc. led these struggles until
1800. Later on in 1820, inspired by the philosophy of Haji Syed
Ahamed Barelvi, Muslims revolted against the British. Gradually it
became a militant revolt under the leadership of Titu Mir. The
followers of Ahmed Barelvi were called Wahabis, and they continued
their heroic fight against the British until 1870. This struggle
remained in the annals of the history of India as Wahabi Movement.
Abdul Aziz, Mahammed Mahashin, Inayat Ali, Vilayat Ali, Peer Ali etc.
played leading role in this glorious movement. The prince of Nizam
estate, Mubarijddaulah, the brother of the nawab also joined hands
with Wahibis in Decaan. Inspite of several conspiracy cases, trails,
severe punishments, the Wahabis continued their struggle. On the
other hand, the father of Farajia struggle, Haji Shariyathulla took
to arms against the British. This struggle has come to be known as
Farajia Struggle. It became very famous during 1830 to 1900. Dudu
Miya, an able son of Shariyathulla, led the struggle successfully for
several years. The Farajia heroes Noya Miya, Amir Miya continued
struggle for a period of 50 years.

Though at the early stages all these struggles were intended
to bring about religious reforms, they gradually changed their
direction against the British. They took arms against the British and
their stooges like Zamindars, Police officers and Mahajans (Money
Lenders), who joined hands with foreign rulers in exploiting and
oppressing Indian masses, peasants, artisans and the rural poor.
Thus Fakirs, Farajis, Wahabis became the forerunners of people's
struggles against the British for India's independence. And daring
and dashing characters of these struggles left behind an inspiring
legacy of a heroic and sustained struggle against the British and
also became a model for the formation of a well knit all-India
political organization

The Tiger of Mysore TEEPU SULTHAN

Teepu Sulthan was the first Indian ruler, who cautioned the
native rulers about the imperialistic designs of the British. He, a
prince with foresight enthused the native rulers to give up their
destructive infighting to defend their country from the onslaught of
British colonialism. He continued the struggle initiated by his
father Hyder Ali against the foreign rulers. He addressed letters to
native rulers explaining the true colours of colonial rulers and
their well laid out plans to devour the country. If the native rulers
had lent full support to Teepu Sulthan, we would not have remained as
rulers here, was the statement of a British General Wellsly, after
the martyrdom of Teepu in the battlefield of the fourth Mysore war.
This shows the importance of Teepu's resistance and foresight.
Fighting on two fronts, one the native rulers and the other the
colonial power, he died on the battlefield on May 4th 1799. The
people of Mysore acclaimed him as the tiger of Mysore. It was only
after the death of Teepu, that the British military officer General
Harris could declare that, from today India is ours. This shows how
Teepu had proved to be a great obstacle in the way of the British.
There was no other hero for half a century, who firmly challenged the
British after the martyrdom of Teepu sulthan.

The first war of Independence

After Teepu, Muslims laid down their lives in the struggle started in
1857, famous as the First War of India's Independence under the
leadership of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Sha Jaffar. In this
struggle the courageous role played by Begum Hazarat Mahal of Oudh is
laudable. She fought the foreign rulers, challenged them and offered
stiff resistance for a period of 14 months, declaring her child as
ruler of the Oudh. She inspired the native rulers and ruled her
state in the time of crisis. It is remarkable to notice thast I n
those days the so-called developed countries like England did not
have women in military. But here in India, we find women in patriotic
military force with proper training, under the leadership of Begum
Azizun, a woman of just 25 years old. She fought on the side of Nana
Saheb. Azizun sacrificed her life for the sake of motherland. She
preferred death to surrendering to the enemy. There were other
courageous women like Habeeba Begum and a women donned in green
dress, who fought violently for the motherland and courted the
gallows without any fear. Begum Rahima bravely fought the enemy
forces. Asgari Begum was barbarically burnt alive for not disclosing
the secrets of revolutionaries. Moulvi Ahamadulla Sha Fyzabadi
marched forward victoriously and inflicted such heavy losses on the
British that they announced a reward of Rs. 50,000-00 for his head.
The Raja of Powain betrayed and he was shot him to death, and his
head was cut off and sent to the British lords, to get the reward.
Only after seeing the head of Ahamadull Sha, the British officers
with a sigh of relief declared that the most formidable enemy of the
British in northern India was dead. Azimulla Khan, brain behind the
revolt, who was the vakeel of Nana Saheb of Kanpur, wrote several
letters to the native rulers and public infusing in them patriotic

Thus there is a long list of Muslim patriots who bravely fought the
British.The list, among the others, includes Moulana Liyakhat Ali
Khan, Hikmatulla Khan, Kahn Bahddur Khan, who became a symbol of
Hindu- Muslim unity. Mahammad Bhakth Khan, the military general of
the first war of India's independence, Bakshi Ali, who inspired
Jhansi ki Rani to revolt, Shehajada Feroz Sha several others.

Several fatwas were issued by the ulema to wage a war against the
British, which stirred the whole community to fulfill the obligations
enjoined on it. Moulvi Fazle Haq and Moulana Sarfrz Ali who wielded
enormous influence upon the people closely aligned themselves with
the revolt. Haji Imadadullah gave stiff resistance fight to the
British while commanding the Mujahids in the plains of Shamili. In
UP, Moulana Qasim Nanutvi and Moulana Rasheed Ahamed Gangohi led the
rebellious forces during the uprisings. Thus Ulema, along with
others, made it obligatory upon the Muslims to wage a holy war
against the British.

In Southern India several patriots unfurled the flag of revolt at
the cost of their lives. A rebel by name cannon blew up Subedar
Ahmed and several of his men were shot dead in Vishakapatnam. Pathan
Turrebaz Khan, Moulvi Allauddin etc. attacked the British residency
at Hyderabad. Turrebaz Khan was hanged publicly and Allauddin was
sent to Andaman. The list containing the names of such legendary
heroes is very long.

Editors who laid down their lives

Muhammed Bakhar, native of Delhi, editor of DELHI AKHBAR, was one
among the several other editors, whom the British treated as their
archenemy. General Hudson, who was notorious for his cruelty,
arrested him and kept in custody for a week and shot him dead for
writing essays against the British and inspiring the fellow Indians
to revolt against the foreign ruler in 1857. After him, Shoyabulla
Khan, editor of a Urdu magazine IMROJ, published from Hyderabad
(present capital of Andhra Pradesh state) was killed by the Rajakars.
Shoyab, an apostle of Hindu-Muslim unity, mounted scathing criticism
on the policy of the Nizam, and the cruelty of the Rajakars. Enraged
by the kind of intellectual crusade that Shoyabulla carried on, the
Rajakaras butchered him brutally in 1948 when he was on his way to
his home from his office. Except these two, we will not find any
other editor, who laid his lives for the sake of his commitment and
the cause of the Country.

Muslims were made prime targets of British tyranny

Unfortunately, the dream of the rebels did not come true and the
first was of Independence ended in a failure. After the recapture of
Delhi in September 1857, the British unleashed a reign of terror. But
in inflicting punishments they discriminated between the members of
one community and to other. Some of the British officers viewed the
1857 revolt as an Islamic Revolt.

Henry Mead was of the view that, this rebellion, in its present
phase, cannot be called a sepoy Mutiny. It did begin with the sepoys,
but soon its true nature was reveled, it was an Islamic revolt.'
Another narrator of the ` dreadful drama ' opined, An English officer
had made it a principle to treat every Muslim as a rebel. He would
enquire from everyone he saw if he was a Hindu or a Muslim, and would
shoot him dead right there if he turned out to be a Muslim. Henry
Harrington Thomas of the Bengal Civil Service wrote a pamphlet in
1858 titled Rebellion in India and our future policy. In that he
observed, I have stated that the Hindus were not the contrivers or
the primary movers of the 1857 rebellion, and I now shall attempt to
show that it was the result of a Mohammad conspiracy...left to their
resources, the Hindus never would or could have encompassed such an

This attitude towards the Muslims continued to be the cornerstone of
British Policy in Indian for a quite long time. The Muslims were
debarred from lucrative government jobs and were ejected from all
other gainful occupations; their trade was ruined and endowments,
from which their schools were maintained, were confiscated. It was
sometimes openly stated in official notifications for government
vacancies that only Hindus would be considered for appointment. Thus
Sir William Hunter has reproduced extracts from papers, which stated
that the appointments would be given to none but Hindus. Continuing
his comments on the situation Hunter said: ` the Muslims have now
sunk so low that even when qualified for Government employment, they
are studiously kept out of it by government notifications. Nobody
takes any notice of their helpless conditions, and the higher
authorities do not deign even to acknowledge their existence'.

After Delhi had been subdued and the British control was firmly
established over it, there began the public executions. Scaffolds
were built on the thoroughfares and Englishmen treated such places as
centers of entertainment. They would collect there in groups
to `enjoy ` the executions. Several localities of Muslims were
totally wiped out. Historians recorded that Muslims were made special
targets of tyrannical acts. With a view that the Muslims initiated
the rebellion, British turned totally hostile towards the whole
community and directed their wrath against the Muslims. According to
history, 27,000 Muslim patriots were executed, to speak nothing of
those killed in the general massacre. Number of sepoys, citizens
were killed, burned, hanged, and blown up by the cannons. Near about
30 thousand Muslims of both sexes were exiled. One British officer
Lord Robert in a letter to his mother wrote, these rascally Musalmans
that, with God's help, English will still be the masters of India.

Conspiracy to devide Indians on the basis of religion

The British rulers were afraid of the unity exhibited by Indians
against them and felt that it would be a danger for them in future.
Hence, they decided to break this unity in the name of religion, to
ensure their continuity as the rulers of the country. For this
purpose British historians and civil officers of British Govt. like
Elliot, Dawson, Malcolm, Briggs, Elephinstone were engaged and they
were directed to write the history books that could set the mind of
the people infavour of British, and that their rule was far better
than that of the ` tyrannical Muslims rule '. They were specifically
ordered to write about the history of Muslim rule in India as an age
of Muslim tyranny over the Hindus. They depicted ` Muslim rule ` as
a very cruel one towards the Hindus and they described the British
rule that descended from haven as God's gift, to liberate the latter
from the oppressive Muslim Rule. At the same time, officers like
William Hunter wrote a book INDIAN MUSLIMS, in which, Muslims were
categorized as a separate nationality, and explained at length the
measures to be taken for their development. These books played
divisive role and succeeded in creating misunderstandings and
spreading false notions about the Muslims and Muslim rulers.

The Prominet role in Indian national congress

After the First War of Independence in 1857, the Indian National
Congress, founded in 1885, led the National Movement. In this
historical movement, from the beginning to the end, Muslims played
their due role in each and every agitation. Badruddin Tayabji and
Rahamtulla Sayani served as the presidents of the Indian National
Congress. Moulana Shibli Nomani stood firmly with the Congress in
spite of the criticism of Sir Syed Ahamed Khan. Affluent Muslims like
Mir Humayun Kabir donated Five thousand rupees and leaders like Ali
Bhimji toured across the country to strengthen the INC. Later eminent
leaders like Dr.Ansari and Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad became the
presidents of the Indian National Congress and various personalities
like Moulana Mohammed Ali, Syed Mohammed, Justice Badruddin Taybji,
Hakim Azmal Khan, and Syed Hasan Imam ect. Chaired the All India
National Congress sessions held at various placers. Moulana Abul
Kalam Azad became the president of INC twice, first in 1923 when he
was 35 years old and again in 1940.

The Multifarious role played by the Ulema

In spite of the divide and rule policy pursued by the British, the
religious leaders of Muslims i.e. the Ulemas declared total support
to the national movement. We have already seen how several religious
leaders took part in the First War of Independence. The Ulemas of
Punjab issued a fatwa in 1888 which made it incumbent on the
Muslims to join the Congress and declared it haram ( unlawful) to
join hands with Sir Syed Ahamed Khan and others, who were
discouraging Muslims from joining the Indian National Congress.
Ulemas, who took up sword and spear in the First War of India's
Independence against British, replaced them with pen and the tongue.
Ulemas of Darul Uloom at Deoband, Shamli, and Fhirangi Mahal
continued the struggle against Brithish. The Moulanas of these
institutions issued Fatwas stating that it was the duty of all
Muslims to participate in the national movement. To this effect an
anthology of hundreds of fatwas was released as a book with the title
NASRATUL ABRAR. Great Islamic theologians like Moulana Mahammad
Hasan, Moulana Mahammad Hasan Madani, Moulana Obedulla Sindhi,
Moulana Saifulla, Moulana Mahammad Shiroji and many others waged war
and lived in exile for a number of years. Ulemas like Moulana Syed
Mahammad declared openly that fighting for India's independence is as
important and pious as performing Namaj everyday. Thus different
organizations and institutions related to Ulemas lent there fullest
support and participated in the National Movement and guided the
people to march against the British.

In 1905 Lord Curjon conspired to break the Hindu-Muslim amity and win
over the Muslims to the side of the British by dividing Bengal. But
the people offered stiff resistance to the partition of Bengal.
Muslim leaders like Barrister Abdul Rasheed, Liyakhat Hussain, Abdul
Hakim Gajnavi, Yussuf Khan; Bahadur Mahammad etc. were in the
forefront of the movement and suffered much. They popularized
Swadeshi among the Muslims of Bengal and established educational
institutions to impart national education to the students. The slogan
that came in to effect at that time, Vandematharam inspired one and
all. Finally, in 1911, the government withdrew its proposal of
dividing Bengal.

The British left no stone unturned to keep the Muslims away from the
agitational politics of the Indian National Congress. They took
several steps to woo Muslims to their own interests. Due to these
tactics of the British the All India Muslim League came into
existence in 1906, which not unexpectedly was blessed by the
Viceroy. The League, which adopted a hostile attitude towards the
Indian National Congress, could not continue it for long. ML came
closer to the INC and cooperated in all its ventures to keep the
nation united and launch the movement for Swaraj. Ultimately this
attitude culminated into the signing of the Lucknow Pact in 1916.

The sparks of Agni Yug

The Swadesi and the Vande-matharam movements inspired many within the
country and abroad to organize revolutionary groups and to take part
in the national movement. In this period which is characterized as
the Agni Yug ( era of fire ), Dr. Barkatulla Bhopali, Dr. Massur,
Abdul Wahab worked as members of the Gadar party. The first Indian
Government in exile was formed in 1916 with Kabul as the
headquarters. Dr. Barkatulla was the Prime Minister and Moulana
Obedulla Sindhi was the Deputy Prime Minister. A federal constitution
was prepared by Moulana Sindhi, which was acclaimed by one and all as
the best one to India with different religions customs and

Muslim women continued the tradition of the women of the First War of
India's Independence. While the police was searching for the
legendary revolutionary Khudiram Bose, who killed the wife of a
British officer, the sister of revolutionary leader Moulvi Abdul
Wahid gave shelter to him and afterwards became so popular as
Khudiram ki didi in the history of freedom movement.

Moulana Madammadul Hasan of Deoband sent a letter to Indian soldiers
requesting them to revolt against the British. This letter was
written on a silk cloth in code language. Hence this was known as
The Conspiracy of Silk Letters. Shaik Abdul Rahman of Hyerabad joined
hands with the revolutionaries. Rasallulla Khan, Imtiyaz Ali,
Ruknuddin got capital punishment for participating in Singapore
revolt of March 1915. They refused the proposal of repentance and
took the gallows. The Indian soldiers of Mandalay Conspiracy Case,
Musthafa Hussain, and Ali Ahmed were executed. In this Era of Fire
several patriots became martyrs. Not only young men, but also young
women like Razia Khatoon, joined and worked with the spirit of
sacrifice in several revolutionary associations like Juganthar,
Anuseelana Samithi, Gadar Party, Hindusthan Republican Association,
Athmonnathi Dalam etc.


Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad leaned towards the revolutionary movement in
the early phase of his political life. He founded a revolutionary
organization called DARUL IRSHAD. He made the members of this society
to take an oath on the Koran to sacrifice their lives for the sake of
motherland. This oath taking ceremony was organized in the Burial
ground of Khiddipur. As Moulana was a Muslim, in the beginning Bengal
revolutionaries suspected him; but afterwards followed him in
extending the revolutionary activities to other areas. He started Al-
Hilal a Urdu weekly, with an object of spreading the revolutionary
ideology. Moulana Azad, Jalalluddin Ahmed, the follower of Moulana
Azad successfully organized revolutionary activities in Bengal.
Afterwards due to the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, Moulana Azad
became a non-violent freedom fighter and played prominent role in the
National Movement.

In those days, several Urdu magazines were published which were
supporting the National Movement. To name only a few, Mahamad Ali
published COMRADE and HUMDARD; Jaffar Ali Khan published ZAMINDAR;
Wahiddin Saleem's THE MUSLIM GAZETTE etc. The editors and publishers
of these magazines were frequently harassed and imprisoned by the
British Govt. The Editors and the management were very often fined
and magazines were put in the block list, and properties of magazines
were ceased and were never returned.

Bataq Miya Ansari, who saved the life of Gandhi

It was Peer Mahammad Munis, a teacher by profession, who first made
public the atrocities committed by the British planters of Neel
Plantation on the peasants at Champaran in Bihar. In 1916 at the
Indian National Congress meeting he met Gandhiji and explained the
sufferings of the peasants. By then Shaik Mahammad Gulab was leading
a peasant movement by consolidating them against the planters.
Gandhiji went to Chaparan to solve the problems of the peasants. The
planters conspired to kill Gandhiji, who supported the peasants. They
forced Bhataq Miya Ansari of Mothihari village to put an end to
Gandhiji's life by administering poison in his food. The planters
threatened him that his whole family would be destroyed if he did not
accept to do so. Due to the fear of harassment by the officers the
small employee of the British Govt. Ansari agreed to do so. But at
the right time he disobeyed the planters and told Gandhiji that
poison was mixed in the soup and thus he saved him from death. At
that time Dr. Rajendra Prasad also accompanied Gandhiji and he was
the witness of the incident.

In 1950 Rajendra Prasad visited Mothihari village as the President
of India. Then he met Ansari, who was in utter poverty. He had lost
his employment and property, as he did not follow the instructions of
the planters. Dr. Rajendra Prasad remembered how Ansari had saved
Gandhiji in 1917. He sanctioned 50 acres of land to Ansari. It is
saddening to learn that government officials allotted the land to
Bataq Miya Ansari only after his death i.e. in 1957.


With the passing of the Rowlett Act in 1918, the govt. unleashed
oppressive measures. Gandhiji gave a call not to violate the Govt.
Acts. On a mass scale the people took oaths. The first signatories
on this oath happened to be Abbas Tayabji, Hakim Azmal Khan, Umar
Sobhani, Dr. M.A. Ansari, Moulana Abdul Bari, Moulana Hasrat Mohani,
Yakubkhan etc. All of them contributed significantly to national
movement. Dr. Ansari and Dr. Abdul Rahaman, became the president and
secretary respectively of the Satygraha meeting against the Rowlett
Act. On this occasion there was a grand Hindu-Muslim unity. At the
Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Arya Samaj leader Swami Sraddhanand, and in
Bombay Masjid Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu addressed the
meetings organized on March 30, 1919. There was mutual respect to the
religious sentiments and they rose above the traditional norms. The
anti Rowlatt Sathyagraha created history in Amrithsar where the
Govt. ruthlessly oppressed anti Rowlett agitation leaders. Dr.
Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Sathypal were sent on exile as they
organized a protest rally and meeting. To protest the inhuman acts
of the British officers a meeting was organized in Jalian Wala Bagh.
General Dyer opened indiscriminate fire and relentlessly killed 378
persons. Among the dead 55 were Muslims, and it is noteworthy that a
55 years old woman Umaar Beebi, resident of Amrithsar, was one among

Khilafath-Non cooperation movement :
symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity
Khilafath and Non-cooperation movements are to be written in golden
letters in the History of Indian National Movement. There was
widespread fury among the Muslims as the British rulers repealed the
Khalifath institution to which much reverence was paid by the
Muslims in the world. Moulana Abdul Baari of Ferangi Mahaal, Lucknow,
started All India Khilafat Conference against the British Govt.,
after gathering Fatwas from different Ulemas. Moulana Abdul Kalam
Azad, Hakem Azmal khan, Moulana Hasarath Mohani led this committee.
Gandhiji thought this as a good opportunity to unite the Hindus and
the Muslims and hence he supported the Khilafath struggle and gave a
call for non-cooperation movement. People responded to this call and
moved together by forgetting caste, creed, religion and region.
Ulemas and other leaders advised the people not to hurt the
sentiments of the people of other faiths. In this context, Moulana
Azad declared, it is the injunction of Islam that the Muslims should
protect their country from invaders, irrespective of whether the
invaders are Muslims or even the army of the Caliph himself. At the
same time, Moulana Mazrul Haq declared that for KHURBANI (animal
sacrifice) cows were not necessary, on the eve of BAKRID festival.
Honouring the call of the leaders students left their educational
institutions, employees left their jobs, and people renounced their
honours and awards conferred by British Govt. As a part of non-
cooperation movement separate National Muslim Institution JAMIA-
MILIA- ISLAMIA came into existence in October 1920 for those students
who left the Institutions like M.A.O College of Alighar and other
educational institutions run by or with the help of the Govt. Shaikul
Hind Moulana Muhammadul Hasan inaugurated the Jamia Milia Islamia.
Ulemas declared that, it was against the religion for Muslims to
serve under the British govt.

In Khilafath and Non-Cooperation movements Ali Brothers (Shoukat Ali
and Mahammad Ali), Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Dr. Ansari, Dr. Zakir
Hussain, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Hakim Azmal Khan, Mazharulal Haq, Prof.
Muzeeb, Abdul Rahim, Mahammad Musa, Abdul Haji, Akbar Ali Khan, Meer
Muhammad Hussain, Abdul Subhan, Moulana Athavulla Sha Bukhari, Haji
Imdadulla, Gulam Mohiddin Sahib of Vijayawada, Badrul Hasan, Akbar
Ali Khan, Makbul Ali of Hyderabad played a ledingt role. Along with
men, Muslim women also played an equal role sacrificing their might
for the sake of motherland. Abadi Begum Bano, mother of Ali Brothers
declared that, In my country even dogs and cats should not be
imprisoned by the British. Muslim Women leaders like Begum
Nishatunnisa Mohani, Amjadi Begum, Begum Amina Tayabji, Shafatunnisa
Begum, Fathima Ismail, Bibi Amuthusslaam etc participated in the
Khilafat and Non-cooperation movements. Among these some inspired
their husbands and some others assumed the responsibilities of the
arrested husbands. Some by their writings and some by their public
speeches played significant role. Some used their property to support
the families of activists. Referring to Begum Sahmsunnisa Ansari for
her commitment, selfless service and hospitality, Gandhiji declared,
I bow my head before her.

The Fire Brand poet and staunch nationalist, Moulana Hasarath Mohani
moved his historic resolution which aimed at changing the Congress
creed as attainment of Swaraj or Complete Independence, free from all
foreign control, by the people of India by all legitimate and
peaceful means. It was in 1921 at the Ahamedabad Congress session.
All in the session including Subhash Chandra Bose were moved by the
forceful speech of Moulana Mohani and supported his proposal. As
Mahatma Gandhi rejected the proposal it was dropped. Begum
Nishathunnisa, wife of Hasarath Mohani, criticized the act of
Mathama. The argument placed by her in her criticism attracted
Gandhiji. Even though she was highly critical of Gandhi, the latter
appreciated her commitment for the cause of the country. Later on in
1927 at the Madras session held under the presidentship of Dr.
M.A Ansari, the proposal of Moulana Hasrath Mohani was accepted.

In 1927 at the Madras Indian National Congress conference, it was
decided to boycott the Simon Commission. As per the instruction of
the INC, in Bombay a young man by name Yusuf Meharali led the
procession. It was a very big demonstration that attracted the whole
of India and Yusuf became a symbol of inspiration to the youth.
Accordingly he organized several Militant Youth Leagues to help the
INC. He gave an advice to people on this occasion reviling the
British that, the British rulers are like dogs. If you kick them,
they will lick you, but if you lick them, they will kick you.

The outbreak of Malabar Moplahs

The Malabar Moplahs had a very long history of fighting against the
zamindars, who acted as the agents of the Britishs. Right from 1800
onwards they fought against them with arms, and such Moplahs played a
special role in the Khilafat and Non-cooperation movements under the
leadership of Moulvi Ali Mussaliyar. Away from their militancy,
Moplahs were non-violent in this movement. But they were incited and
consequently they revolted and took to arms against the British.
British officers along with their police ran away from Mophal
dominated area. Moplahs organized their own style of people's rule
and thus created a new history. Later the British military took
vengeance and hundreds of Moplahs were killed.
A train tragedy famous as the ` Bellary Train Tragedy ` took place
in Malabar. The British military sent 127 activists from Thirur to
Bellary jail. They were packed in a small wagon, which is
insufficient to accommodate all the 127 Moplahs. It caused
intolerable suffocation resulting in the death of more than 70
Moplahs by the time the train reached Coimabtore.

In this struggle 252 Moplahs were shot dead by British military, and
another 500 were sentenced to life imprisonment. Along with Moulvi
Kunyi Khadar, Moulvi Ali Mussaliyar, several of them were executed.
Moplahs leaders like Mahammad Abdul Rahman Saheb, Moulvi Khadar
Mohiddin, Mohiddin Koya etc. played an admirably prominent role in
this movement.

When the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation movements were at their
zenith , the violence that erupted at Chowri Chowra made Mahatma
Gandhi suspend the movement infavour of constructive programmes. The
abrupt decision of Gandhi was criticized by youth and some of the
elder leaders of Indian National Congress also resented such move.
Young men thought that there was no other way except armed struggle
to drive the British out of India. The decision of Gandhiji, which
caused much dissatisfaction, protest and anger, paved way for the
second phase of revolutionary.

Kakori hero Ashfhaqulla Khan

The youth like Ashfhakhulla Khan, who believed that there was no
other way except taking up armed struggle to achieve independence,
became the members of the Hindustan Republican Army. In the Kakori
Train Robbery, planned by the HRA, he played a significant role. One
year after the heroic act the British police arrested him. It was
hinted that simple confession involving his comrades would secure his
release. But Asfhaqullah scornfully rejected the proposal. Later on
he was hanged in the year 1927. One day before his execution,
surrounded by the lamenting relatives, he said if I am not allowed to
observe the last ceremony of the noblest ordeal with all dignity and
steadiness, then the sanctity of the occasion will be tarnished.
Today I feel myself worthy of honour with the hope that a sacred and
great responsibility for the liberation of motherland has been
entrusted to me. You should feel happy and proud that one of yours is
fortunate enough to offer his life. You must remember that Hindu
community has dedicated geart souls like Khudiram and Kanailal. To me
this is a good fortune that belonging to the Muslim community, I have
acquired the privilege of following the footsteps of those great
His was only 27 years old at the time of execution. He wrote an
appealing letter addressing the people of India. It read :
Irrespective of your religion, tradition cooperate with each other in
the service of country. Don't quarrel among yourselves. Though the
ways are different our aim is one. When it is so, why should we waste
our energy in fighting? Rise against the British unitedly and make
the country free. From the execution platform he declared his wish
as, Hamara wathan rahe sadaa khayam aur aabad, Hamara kya, ham rahe,
Na rahe, and laid down his life to liberate motherland from the yoke
of British. As he was very fond of his native place, he asked his
people to place some earth of his village in his Coffin. The couplet
in this regard goes like this: Kuch arju nahihai, arjutho yah hia
rakhdo koyi jazarsi khane wathn kafan me.

In the second phase of the Agni Yug Moulvi Gayajuddin, Naseeruddin
Ahmed, Abdul khader of the Juganthar party, Altaf Ali, Mahammad
Ismail, Jahiruddin etc. of the Anuseelan party and so many other
revolutionaries fought bravely against the British. Fazululla Khan a
Deputy Magistrate in the British Govt. assigned 60 acres of land to
Alluri Sitharama Raju, who led the famous Rampa rebellion in Andhra
Pradesh. Mr Fazululla supported Alluri's anti-British activities and
the Rampa rebellion. Unfortunately he died due to the severe illness
at an early age; otherwise he would have take part in Rampa movement
as a comrade of Alluri Seetharama Raju.

The suspension of Non-Cooperation movement created vacuum in the
political arena. To assess the situation the INC formed a Civil
Disobedience Enquiry Committe in June 1922, which was headed by Hakim
Aajmal Khan. At this juncture the question of whether to contest or
not to contest in the elections (Under the 1919 Act) divided the INC
into two camps. Those who wish to contest were called ` Pro-
changers `, and those opposed were called ` No Changers '. Hakim
Azmal Khan was with the pro-changers, and Dr. M A Ansari was with the
no-Changers. Later on Hakim Azmal Khan became one of the founders of
the Swaraj Party headed by Mothi Lal Nehru. Due to the efforts of
Moulan Abul Kalam Azad, a compromise was arrived in Delhi in a
special session of INC the held under Moulana's presidentship in the
year 1923

Inspired by Bolshevik revolution

Youth inspired by the success of the Russian Bolshevik revolution
went to Russia to examine the socialist experiment. Some of them
started educating the masses in this direction. In this context we
cannot but remember Amir Hyder khan, who introduced communism and
organized the communist party in South India. Showkath Usmani,
Dr.Jainullabuddin and his wife, Hajara Begum, Mujafar Ahmed,
popularly known as Kaka Babu, Dr. Mahammad Jaffar, Shamshul Huda, Dr.
Ashroff, famous poets like Sardar Ali Zafri, Sajjad Jaheer, Quaji
Nazrul Islam, and Makdum Mohiuddin of Hyderabad, Moulana Hasrath
Mohani etc. were inspired by Bolshevik revolution The British Govt.
foisted several conspiracy cases like Peshawar conspiracy case and
Meerut conspiracy case against Amir Hyder Khan, Mujaffar Ahmed and
Showkath Usmani and several others. All of them were imprisoned for
several years.

Khuda-I-khidmathgar Movement : A non-violent struggle

In April 1930 Salt Sathyagraha movement was launched under the
leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. The March reached Dandi and salt was
prepared there violating the British laws. On this occasion Gandhiji
appointed Abbas Tayabji as his next `dictator' of the Dandi March. In
the North Western Provinces the Pathans under the leadership of Khan
Abdul Gaffar Khan, led a nonviolent struggle, which dismayed many
including Gandhi. Even though the Pathans traditionally lovers of
arms, they did not gone out of the non-violent path even when the
military attacked with arms and killed several of them
indiscriminately. Hundred of Pathans became martyrs in Khissa khani
bazaar of Peshawar, receiving bullets from the British police Khuda-I-
Khidmathgar (Servants of God) marched forward and sacrificed their
lives and created a new chapter in the history of nonviolent
movements of the world.

During the Civil Disobedience movement, Moulana Altaf Hussein, Abdul
Hayat, Tayyab Ali, Pathan Gayajuddin, Jalaluddin Hashmi, Prof.
Humayun Kabir, Abu Hasan Circar, Riyazul Karim, Fakruddin Ali Ahmed,
etc. had undergone long-term imprisonment. After the Lucknow
conference in 1936, people with socialist ideas like Rafiq Zakaria,
Hussain Jaheer, K.A. Abbas, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, took active role in
the Congress party. Along with the individuals, several institutions
like Khuda-e-Khidmathgar, Jamayath Ulema-I-Hind, Muzlis-I-Arhar,
Nationalist Muslim Party, Momin Party, Shia Conference, Anjman-I-
wathan, Krishik Praja Party etc. also played important roles.

According to the Local Self-Government Act of 1935, elections were
held and in those elections Congress got thumping majority against
the Muslim League. In the Northwest also Congress got good majority
by the unstained support provided by Khan Abdul Gaffaar Khan, Allah
Buksh Sumrroh, Abdul Samad Khan, Dr. Khan Saheb etc. All these
leaders fought against the communal politics of the Muslim League,
and were against the proposal of the division of the country. They
firmly stood against the Two Nation Theory. As a result of this,
Muslim League leaders killed leaders like Allah Buksh Summrroh who
fought against the communal forces until death. Communal forces
murdered him in 1943. Abdul Gaffar Khan, known as the SARHAD GANDHI,
was in prison for three decades before and after 1947 and was in
exile for some more years. Abdul Samad Khan, known as BELUCHI GANDHI
was imprisoned for several years.

Mahamad Ali Jinnaha who went to London in 1930 returned in 1934. With
his reentry into politics, Nationalist movement had taken several
turns. Gandhiji did not take Dr. Ansaari to the Second Round Table
Conference. The absence of nationalist Muslims gave the League a
basis and a chance to proclaim itself as the sole representative of
Muslims. Thus it became a good excuse to propagate communal politics.
Jinnaha started invigorating the Muslim League. Irrational decisions
taken by Pandit Jawaharlal and other leaders of the Indian National
Congress belonging to Uttara Pradesh, Bihar and Bombay after the
elections in 1937, added strength to the arguments of the Muslim
League. Abul Kalam, in very clear terms, blamed Jawaharlal stating
that Jawaharlal's action gave the Muslim league in the UP a new ease
of was from the UP that League was reorganized. In 1940
the Muslim League declared that Hindus and Muslims were two different
nationalities and the two-nation theory was reiterated. In the Lahore
meeting Jinnaha proposed the resolution on Pakistan.

In fact the two-nation theory was not the brainchild of Jinnaha. It
emerged out of the ideological acceleration of Hindu fanaticism and
hate Muslim policy adopted since the creation of Hindu Mela in 1864
by Raj Narayan Bose. Later, in 1923 Bhai Premanad, president of the
Hindu Maha Sabha, had demanded a division of province on the basis
of Hindu and Muslims majority. In 1924 Lala Lajpath Rai, in his
articles published in THE TRIBUNE (26th November to 17th December
1924) supported the idea of Bhai Permanand. In 1930 Khawja Abdur
Rahim used the word PAKISTAN. Later when Chowdary Rahamath Ali
published a brochure on this issue, Md. Jinnaha ridiculed the Idea of
Pakistan stating that it was a wild musing of an irresponsible

Moulana Abul Kalam Azad became the president of the INC for the
second time at Ramghar Session 1940. He believed in the concept of
one and undivided nationality. The Ramghar session passed
resolutions that reflected the views of the Moulana. His advocacy of
and conviction in one nation at Ramghar must have provoked the ML to
publicize the Pakistan scheme only three day later on the basis of
the two-nation theory. In the meanwhile Hindu communalists came
forward and shook hands with the ML, declaring that Hindus-Muslims
constituted separate nations. Azad paid a deaf ear to these communal

In the month of August 1940 Gandhiji announced the ` Quit India '
agitation. As per the findings of Dr. AU Sahik IPS, Yusuf Meharali of
Bombay created the slogan Quit India. Even he wrote a book titled
Quit India, which has become very popular and gone into several
prints. This movement led the arrests of several INC leaders like the
Moulana Azad, Dr. Syed Mahumad, Asaf Ali and others. They were kept
in Ahamednagar fort. Even though the ML called the Muslims to keep
themselves away from Quit India movement, nationalist Muslims took
active part and played prominent role in the Same.

After the release from the jail Moulana Azad represented the INC at
Simla Conference in 1945. On this occasion the ML claimed to be the
sole representative of the Muslims. Hence the conference failed.
During the tenure of his leadership Moulana Azad successfully
launched the Individual Sathyagraha, had negotiations with Sir
Stafford Cripps and led the Quit India Movement.

The confidants of Netaji

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose accepted the help of Japan for the
liberation of the motherland. There were several Muslims in the Azad
Hind Fouz as officers and soldiers. General Shanwaz Khan, Colonel
Aziz Ahmed, Ashrafuddin Ahamed Chaudary, Colonel Habiburahaman, and
Abid Hasan Safrani of Hyderabad etc played a key role in the Fouz.
Akbar Sha was with Netaji when Bose escaped from India. In the
submarine journey of Bose from Berlin, Abid Hasan Safrani followed
Netaji as his personal secretary. In his last journey in airplane
from Tokyo, Colonel Habiburehaman was with him. There were several
martyrs like Ashroff Mandal, Amir Hayat, Abdul Rajq Ali, Akhtar Ali,
Mahamad Ali Sha, Ata Mahamad, Ahmad Khan, A.K. Mirja, Abu Khan, S.
Akhtar Ali, Ahmeadulla. Abdul Rahaman Khan and Abid Hasan Safrani,
Khamrul Islam, Tajuddin from Hyderabad ect., who served in the Azad
Hind Fouz in different positions. Abid Hasn Safrani who is from
Hyderabad coined ` Jai Hind ' and ` Nethaji' , which had become
house hold slogan in the history of freedom struggle.

In 1943 while in Japan, Nathaji formed a Provisional Government of
Free India that included some of the trusted lieutenants such as Col
Aziz Ahamed, Lt.Colonel MZ Kiyam, Lt. Col. Ehasn Qadir, Lt. Col
ShahnawajKhan, Karim Ghani and DM Khan.

The British govt. foisted several cases and treated the members of
the Azad Hind Fouz as traitors. General Shanawaaj Khan rejected the
proposal of Mahamad Ali Jinnaha that the later would argue their case
in the court, if the former separated himself from other Hindu
Brethren, by declaring that we have stood shoulder to shoulder in the
struggle for freedom. My comrades have died on the field of battle
inspired by our leadership. We stand or fall together. In the trail
that continued, Rasheed Ali was sentenced with 7 years imprisonment
that was resented by the people of India.

The last revolt

During the Quit India Movement defense forces could not
remain unaffected from expressing the spirit of patriotism openly.
One of the causes for the discontentment among the defense forces was
racial discrimination to which they were being subjected. It caused
the revolt of Royal Indian Navy. It could be called as the last pin
in the coffin of British Rule in India. And it would be treated as
the last phase in India's struggle for independence. The revolt
erupted in February 1946 against racial discrimination of the British
in the Royal Indian Navy (RIN). Indian National Congress and the
Muslim League fought against the British Navy Officers. Common
people supported the revolt as they did in 1857. The unity of 1857
was exhibited once again in 1946. The British indiscriminately shot
at the Jawans and common people who demonstrated their resentment
against the discrimination towards the Indians in the Navy. As usual,
several Muslims laid down their lives in this last revolt. Moulana
Azad interfered in this matter and sought the assurance from the
Commander-in-Chief of the Indian forces that there would be no
victimization of the naval personnel.

Freedom of India at the cost of partition

The Labour Party came into power in Britain. It held soft
attitude towards the Indian Independence and was prepared to transfer
power due to various reasons. A commission called Cabinet Commission
was sent to India in March 1946. In the discussion with the
commission the INC leaders opposed Partition of India and the ML was
insistent on Partition. Rejecting the invitation to join in Interim
government the League launched DIRECT ACTION programme, which
resulted in to outbreak of communal riots. Moulana Azad firmly held
the view that demand for Partition would cool down if some time was
allowed to pass on between formation of Interim Government and the
final transfer of power. But other congress leaders were very anxious
to get the power transferred even at the cost of partition. So the
Moulana's plan was not allowed to run in its full course. In July
1946 Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru succeeded Moulana Azad as the president
of the Indian National Congress.

Nationalist Muslims leaders offered stiff resistance to partition

On 20th February 1947 British Prime Minister Attlee announced
that the British would quit India by June 1948. Lord Mountbatten was
sent to India to arrange for transfer of power. He brought forward a
plan on 3rd June 1947.

Moulana Azad was deeply distressed to find that Mountbattan
was engaged in planning the partition of the country. He perceived
that India was moving towards a great jeopardy. He was of the
opinion that the Cabinet Mission Plan was the best solution for the
unity of India. It could preserve unity and give every community an
opportunity to function with freedom and hounour. Azad thought that
the real problems of the country were economic and not communal...the
differences related to class'es and not to communities. The Moulana
pleaded his colleges, particularly Pandit Nehru not to take final
step towards the partition of India. He emphasized in quite unequal
terms that to accept partition was to accept Jinnaha's two-nation
theory. In his view, the partition instead of removing communal
fears would perpetuate them by creating two states based on communal
hatred. He declared, if we acted in haste and accepted partition, we
should be doing permanent injury to India.

In Bengal Muslim legislators vehemently opposed partition
while Hindu legislators demanded partition of India. According to Mr.
A. Leonard Gordon, out of a total of 79 legislators from Hindu
majority area 21 voted against the partition, 58-demanded partition.
Likewise out of 141 legislators of Muslim majority area 106 voted
against partition and 35 supported the demand for partition. It makes
it crystal clear that a majority of Muslims were not infovour of
partition and that they were deeply concerned about the unity of the

Even after relentless efforts by Nationalist Muslimsin the
AICC session in New Delhi held on 14th June 1947 Pandit Govinda
Vallbhai Panth moved the resolution accepting the June 3 Plan, which
was in favour of partition. Apart from Moulana Azad, other leaders
of INC like Abdul Ghani, Hafizur Rehaman, Dr.Saifuddin Kitchlew,
Ansar Harvani opposed it and described the resolution as a surrender
to JInnah's obstinacy. Resolution was carried out by with the
support of 157 to 29 votes. 32 members remained neutral. E.W. R.
Lumby observed, that the opposition came mainly from...Nationalist
Muslims, who felt that the congress had let them down. The efforts
of Mahatma Gandhi, Moulana Azad, and the Frontier Gandhi Khan Abdul
Gaffar Khan became futile. After the resolution was passed Gaffar
Khan felt that they were thrown to the mercy of wolves.

History sans Muslims is incomplete

It can be said that from 1940 onwards until we got independence
Gandhi-Moulana leadership guided the national movement. Azad, the
then President of the Congress party understood the danger of two-
nation theory. So he gave precedence to Hindu-Muslim unity than the
attainment of Swaraj. He said on one occasion that ` If an angel
descends from heaven today and proclaims from the Qutub Minar that
India can attain Swaraj within 24 hours provided I relinquish my
demand for Hindu-Muslim Unity, I shall retort to it: ` No my friend,
I shall give up Swaraj, but not Hindu-Muslim unity, for if Swaraj is
delayed, it will be a loss for India, but if Hindu-Muslim unity is
lost, it will be a loss for the whole of mankind. This makes us
clear that he preferred Hindu-Muslim unity to Swaraj for India. He
warned that there was nothing to lose even if Swaraj was delayed, but
if the unity among the Indians was broken, it would be a potential
danger to the existence of human race itself. He vehemently refuted
the arguments of communalists who held a nefarious view that religion
would unite people forever.

In this regard Moulana said, it is one of the greatest frauds on
the people to suggest that religious affinity can unite areas that
are geographically,economically, linguistically and culturally
different. If it is true that Islam sought to establish a society,
which transcends racial, linguistic, econimic and political
frontiers. History has, however,, proved that the first few decated
or at the most after the first century, Isliam was not able to unite
all the Muslim countires on the basis of Islam alone. He was hopeful
that political divisions of the country would not, in any way, affect
our cultural unity. Indian culture was indivisible. Moulana explained
this fact with a simple illustration: If we put a stick in the water,
it may appear that the water has been divided but the water remains
the same and the moment the stick is removed, even death appearance
of division disappears. Thus Moulana fought ferociously against
Partition and pleaded for Hindu-Muslim Unity.

Indian culture and civilization with out Muslims is

On 14th August 1947, the June 3 Plan was put into effect and India
was partitioned. On 15th August India was declared as an Independent
State. The rich, English educated, capitalists, land lords,
industrialists, big business magnates, among Muslims, who wanted to
grab the opportunities in a new country, the politicians who were
power hungry left for Pakistan. But those Muslims the poor and the
masses, who loved their motherland, continued to live in India. They
became an inseparable part of India by participating in several
developmental activities, and contributed their fullest might for the
progress of India.

To conclude in the apt words of Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad, I
am indispensable to this noble edifice. With out me this splendid
structure of India is incomplete. I am an essential element that has
gone to build India. I can never surrender this claim...I am proud of
being an Indian. I am part of the indivisible unity that is Indian

(Author of this article has write several books on the ` the role of
Muslims in the freedom movement of India. His books are 01. Indian
Freedom Movement : Muslim Women, 02. Indian Freedom Movement :
Muslims, 3. Indian Freedom Movement : Andhra Muslims, 04. Indian
Freedom Movement : Uprisings of Muslim patriots, 05. Mysore puli :
Teepu Sulthan, 06. Shaheed-e-Azam Ashfhaqulla Khan, 07. Indian
Freedom Struggle : Muslim Heroes (First Part). Interested readers can
communicate with the author to this address : House No. 3-506,
Apnaghar, UNDAVALLI CENTRE - 522501, Tadepally Mandalam, Guntur Dist.
Andhra Pradesh. Phone: 08645-272940, Cell. 9440241727. )

really it is an shameful

really it is an shameful think that all Indian just forgotten a half part of Indian history.
they served all the Muslim's struggle as an Pakistan struggle but why don't they understand once a time Pakistan also an Hindustan.
we all have to teach right to the students and kids so they remember who struggle who not. we have to do this, we have to teach them the whole history of India not the half one.